Biological invasions - the establishment of species beyond their historical range - are a major force of ecological and evolutionary change. Our lab aims to understand the patterns, processes, and consequences of invasions in marine ecosystems on local to global scales. We have laboratories and staff on both coasts of North America, on Chesapeake Bay and San Francisco Bay (Tiburon Lab). These bays are focal points for our long-term, intensive research, which spans Pacific and Atlantic shorelines of the Americas --- from polar to tropical latitudes.
Most marine invasions result from human-mediated species transfers, which are often associated with commercial and recreational vessels. A major component of our research examines shipping, transportation, and trade dynamics for the United States with the National Ballast Information Clearinghouse (NBIC), a joint program with the U.S. Coast Guard that is based at SERC. NBIC tracks the status and trends of ballast water delivery and management for the Nation.
Our research encompasses a wide range of projects, exploring the ecology and management of coastal marine ecosystems. We focus primarily on invasion dynamics but also examine species interactions of both native and non-native species. Overall, we seek to: (1) characterize patterns of marine invasion across space, time, and taxonomic groups; (2) develop a mechanistic understanding of the processes that drive observed patterns; (3) advance predictive capability about the establishment, spread, and impacts of non-native species in marine ecosystems; (4) evaluate the efficacy of management strategies to limit the establishment and impact of invaders; and (5) understand the roles of species interactions, including predator-prey and host-parasite relationships, in marine communities.
Further details on the various dimensions of our work are available below.
Verna, D.E., M.S. Minton, and G.M. Ruiz. 2021. Trade Exports Predict Regional Ballast Water Discharge by Ships in San Francisco Bay. Front. Mar. Sci., 16 July 2021 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.638955 (online July 16, 2021)
Blakeslee, A.M. H., Pochtar, D.L., Fowler, A.E., Moore, C.S., Lee, T.S., Barnard, R.B., Swanson, K.M., Lukas, L.C., Ruocchio, M., Torchin, M.E., Miller, A. W., Ruiz, G.M. and Tepolt, C.K. 2021. Invasion of the body snatchers: the role of parasite introduction in host distribution and response to salinity in invaded estuaries. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 288 (1953) https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2021.0703 (online June, 23, 2021)
Freestone, A.L., Torchin, M.E., Jurgens, Laura J., Bonfim, M., López, D.P., Repetto, M.F., Schlöder, C, Sewall, B.J. and Ruiz, G.M. 2021. Stronger predation intensity and impact on prey communities in the tropics. Ecology, https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.3428 (online June 9, 2021)
Georgiades, E., Scianni, C., Davidson, I., Tamburri, M.N., First, M.R., Ruiz, G.M., Ellard, K., Deveney, M., Kluza, D. 2021. The Role of Vessel Biofouling in the Translocation of Marine Pathogens: Management Considerations and Challenges. Front. Mar. Sci., 28 April 2021 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.660125 (online April 28, 2021)
Drake, LA, Bailey, SA., Brydges, T., Carney, K.J, Ruiz, G.M., Bayly-Stark, J., Drillet, G., Everett, R.A. 2021. Design and installation of ballast water sample ports: Current status and implications for assessing compliance with discharge standards. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 167: 112280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112280 (online March 31, 2021)
July 16, 2021
Verna, D.E., M.S. Minton, and G.M. Ruiz. 2021. Trade Exports Predict Regional Ballast Water Discharge by Ships in San Francisco Bay. Front. Mar. Sci., 16 July 2021 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.638955
Biological invasions often result from transfers of organisms during trade activities. In coastal ecosystems, commercial ships are a dominant source of species transfers globally, and ships’ ballast water (BW) is a major focus of biosecurity management and policy to reduce invasions. While trade drives shipping patterns, diverse vessel types and behaviors exist such that the quantitative relationship between trade and BW dynamics is still poorly resolved, limiting both science and management. Here, we evaluated a new method to predict BW discharge using trade data, by explicitly considering known BW practices according to vessel and commodity type. Specifically, we estimated the relationship between tonnage of overseas exports and BW discharge volume for San Francisco Bay (SFB), California, as a model system to demonstrate this approach. Using extensive datasets on shipborne exports and BW discharge, we (a) evaluated spatial and temporal patterns across nearly 20 ports in this estuary from 2006 to 2014 and (b) developed a predictive model to estimate overseas BW discharge volume from foreign export tonnage for the whole estuary. Although vessel arrivals in SFB remained nearly constant from 2006 to 2014, associated tonnage of exported commodities more than doubled and BW discharge more than tripled. Increased BW volume resulted from increased frequency and per capita discharge of bulk carriers from Asia and tankers from western Central America and Hawaii, reflecting shifts in direction of commodity movement. The top 11 export commodities (59% of total export tonnage) were transported on bulk carriers or tankers. In a multivariate linear model, annual tonnage of these top 11 export commodities by vessel type were strong predictors of total bay-wide overseas BW discharge (adjusted R2 = 0.92), creating the potential to estimate past or future BW delivery in SFB. Bulk export tonnage provides valuable insights into BW flux, since most BW discharge to ports is driven by trade of bulk commodities and the behavior of bulk and tank ships. BW discharge data are unavailable for many regions and time periods, whereas trade data are widely available and can provide a reliable proxy estimate of BW volume and geographic source, which are both critical to evaluate invasion risk.
June 23, 2021
Blakeslee, A.M. H., Pochtar, D.L., Fowler, A.E., Moore, C.S., Lee, T.S., Barnard, R.B., Swanson, K.M., Lukas, L.C., Ruocchio, M., Torchin, M.E., Miller, A. W., Ruiz, G.M. and Tepolt, C.K. 2021. Invasion of the body snatchers: the role of parasite introduction in host distribution and response to salinity in invaded estuaries. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 288 (1953) https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2021.0703
In dynamic systems, organisms are faced with variable selective forces that may impose trade-offs. In estuaries, salinity is a strong driver of organismal diversity, while parasites shape species distributions and demography. We tested for trade-offs between low-salinity stress and parasitism in an invasive castrating parasite and its mud crab host along salinity gradients of two North Carolina rivers. We performed field surveys every six to eight weeks over 3 years to determine factors influencing parasite prevalence, host abundance, and associated taxa diversity. We also looked for signatures of low-salinity stress in the host by examining its response (time-to-right and gene expression) to salinity. We found salinity and temperature significantly affected parasite prevalence, with low-salinity sites (less than 10 practical salinity units (PSU)) lacking infection, and populations in moderate salinities at warmer temperatures reaching prevalence as high as 60%. Host abundance was negatively associated with parasite prevalence. Host gene expression was plastic to acclimation salinity, but several osmoregulatory and immune-related genes demonstrated source-dependent salinity response. We identified a genetic marker that was strongly associated with salinity against a backdrop of no neutral genetic structure, suggesting possible selection on standing variation. Our study illuminates how selective trade-offs in naturally dynamic systems may shape host evolutionary ecology.
June 9, 2021
Freestone, A.L., Torchin, M.E., Jurgens, Laura J., Bonfim, M., López, D.P., Repetto, M.F., Schlöder, C, Sewall, B.J. and Ruiz, G.M. 2021. Stronger predation intensity and impact on prey communities in the tropics. Ecology, https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.3428
The hypothesis that biotic interactions strengthen toward lower latitudes provides a framework for linking community-scale processes with the macroecological scales that define our biosphere. Despite the importance of this hypothesis for understanding community assembly and ecosystem functioning, the extent to which interaction strength varies across latitude and the effects of this variation on natural communities remain unresolved. Predation in particular is central to ecological and evolutionary dynamics across the globe, yet very few studies explore both community-scale causes and outcomes of predation across latitude. Here we expand beyond prior studies to examine two important components of predation strength: intensity of predation (including multiple dimensions of the predator guild) and impact on prey community biomass and structure, providing one of the most comprehensive examinations of predator–prey interactions across latitude. Using standardized experiments, we tested the hypothesis that predation intensity and impact on prey communities were stronger at lower latitudes. We further assessed prey recruitment to evaluate the potential for this process to mediate predation effects. We used sessile marine invertebrate communities and their fish predators in nearshore environments as a model system, with experiments conducted at 12 sites in four regions spanning the tropics to the subarctic. Our results show clear support for an increase in both predation intensity and impact at lower relative to higher latitudes. The predator guild was more diverse at low latitudes, with higher predation rates, longer interaction durations, and larger predator body sizes, suggesting stronger predation intensity in the tropics. Predation also reduced prey biomass and altered prey composition at low latitudes, with no effects at high latitudes. Although recruitment rates were up to three orders of magnitude higher in the tropics than the subarctic, prey replacement through this process was insufficient to dampen completely the strong impacts of predators in the tropics. Our study provides a novel perspective on the biotic interaction hypothesis, suggesting that multiple components of the predator community likely contribute to predation intensity at low latitudes, with important consequences for the structure of prey communities.
April 28, 2021
Grosholz ED, Ashton G, Bradley M, Ceballos L, Chang AL, deRivera C, Gonzalez J, Heineke M, Maraffini M, McCann L, Pollard E, Pritchard I, Ruiz G, Tepolt C. 2021. Dramatic Population Irruption Defeats Eradication of an Invasive Marine Predator. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2003955118
Vessel biofouling is a major pathway for the introduction, establishment, and subsequent spread of marine non-indigenous macro-organisms. As a result, national and international regulations and guidelines have been implemented to manage the risks associated with this pathway, yet widespread enforcement and uptake are still in their infancy. By comparison, translocation of marine pathogens by vessel biofouling has received little attention despite a mounting body of evidence highlighting the potential importance of this pathway. Using molluscan pathogens as a model, this paper examines the potential for translocation of marine pathogens via the vessel biofouling pathway by reviewing: (1) examples where vessel biofouling is suspected to be the source pathway of non-indigenous pathogen introduction to new areas, and (2) the association between pathogens known to have detrimental effects on wild and farmed mollusk populations with species known to foul vessels and anthropogenic structures. The available evidence indicates that vessel biofouling is a viable and important pathway for translocating marine pathogens, presenting a risk to marine values (i.e., environmental, economic, social, and cultural). While preventive measures to minimize the translocation of macro-organisms are the most efficient way to minimize the likelihood of associated pathogen translocation, the application of reactive management measures to biofouled vessels, including post-filtration treatment, requires further and explicit consideration.
March 31, 2021
Drake, LA, Bailey, SA., Brydges, T., Carney, K.J, Ruiz, G.M., Bayly-Stark, J., Drillet, G., Everett, R.A. 2021. Design and installation of ballast water sample ports: Current status and implications for assessing compliance with discharge standards. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 167: 112280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112280
To verify ships' compliance with ballast water regulations, samples may be collected and tested for viable organisms. This task is completed using a sample probe, which is placed in the ballast discharge pipe through a sample port (a flanged opening). To collect representative samples, the placement of the sample port and the size of the sample probe must be appropriate for the shipboard piping arrangement and ballast water flows. The placement of sample ports was evaluated on 72 ships to assess the current condition of ballast water sampling installations against available guidance. Few ships (15%) had sample ports fully aligned with International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard 11711-1. While current configurations may present challenges in collecting representative samples, these installations likely occurred before the ISO standard was available. Future installations should be in accordance with the standard to facilitate representative sampling.
Species distributions are at the core of all ecological and evolutionary processes. Despite recognition that accelerating invasions are radically changing fundamental ecological processes, we currently lack the data for a broad scale understanding of these patterns, emergent properties, and practical implications across both spatial and temporal scales. We are collecting quality occurrence data and using these data to understand patterns and mechanisms of invasion, and making these data publicly available for broader application by the public.
The impacts of introduced species pose significant challenges for conservation and restoration because they undermine a desired outcome for target species or habitats. In addition, some invasions impose significant economic costs through loss of agriculture, forestry, and fisheries products, and others, including mosquito-borne viruses and toxic algal blooms, have severe human health effects. Detailed analysis of several high-profile species invasions have highlighted the types and potential magnitude of invasion impacts that exist, however, the effect of most non-native species and the full scope of impacts from invasions remains poorly understood. To address this gap, we use a variety of approaches to characterize and test the ecological, evolutionary, and social effects of non-native species across diverse ecosystems. This work advances understanding of how the Earth’s ecosystems function and also serve to inform resource management and conservation strategies.
Biological invasions provide opportunities to examine how species and ecosystems respond to new arrivals, and how species adapt to new environmental conditions. These types of “natural experiments” provide new insights into many biological processes, especially early in the colonization process, that are not possible with native communities. We examine invasion ecology at the population, community, and ecosystem level across a diverse range of habitats and organisms, both to advance basic science and inform management and conservation strategies.
Managing biological invasions is a worldwide endeavor that aims to (a) prevent the human-caused spread of species, (b) control and remove unwanted species, and (c) reduce negative impacts to society and the environment. We are evaluating the efficacy and consequences of invasion management strategies and policies in coastal estuaries and marine systems. Our work is often done in collaboration with local, state, federal and international partners and used actively to inform current management and policy decisions.
We study the dynamic interactions between society, trade, transport, and species in a variety of ways. These include modeling transport networks and biotic exchange, evaluating business model forecasts and their effects on trade routes and species distributions, and assessments of organism transfers across major corridors between oceans and continents.
Understanding how modes of human transportation affect the environment, and biological invasions in particular, is complicated and involves many components including both human and natural history. Human history because most invasions result from human-aided species transfers and invasion patterns often reflect human movements and transportation systems. Natural history because species identifications and their life history characteristics are paramount to knowing which species are non-native and how they have likely been introduced. We work to address these complexities and strive to understand the dynamics of species transport in marine systems.
Balanced predation and competition are key to the health of any ecosystem. We are examining predation and competition rates in several environments including in the Rhode River near SERC where we study native species in nearshore environments and in introduced fouling communities on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.
Communities are constantly being shaped by human activities, activates that can affect hydrology, climate, chemical inputs, species richness (number of species that make up the community), as well as habitat quantity and quality. Our research focuses on how biological invasions change the marine and estuarine communities they invade and how recipient communities protect themselves from invasion. The following highlights a few of our recent projects exploring community changes resulting from nonnative species introductions.
Propagule Pressure in Marine Habitats
We are examining the complex, dynamic interactions between parasites and their hosts, including both the evolutionary and ecological mechanisms that influence these interactions. Our research includes a wide variety of hosts (e.g., seagrasses, bivalves, crustaceans) and parasites (e.g., protists, bacteria, crustaceans).